Mike Ananny | Eva Anduiza | Elizabeth Armstrong | Patricia A. Banks | Niko Besnier | Bart Bonikowski | Jacob Bowers | Christopher J. Bryan | Tai-Li Chou | Francis Dennig | Elise Dermineur | Andrew Elder | Estelle Freedman | Jennifer Freyd | Miriam A. Golden | Benjamin Mako Hill | Ying-yi Hong | Toomas Hendrik Ilves | Michelle Jackson | Jerry A. Jacobs | Sherman James | Mark Kayser | Daniel Kelly | Dominique Lestel | Peter Loewen | Elizabeth Lonsdorf | Adrienne Mayor | Ruth Milkman | Reviel Netz | Stephen Sawyer | Maya Tudor | Vanessa Tyson | Jacob Ward | Kim M. Williams | Cara Wong | Linda Woodhead | Kirsten Wysen | Songfa Zhong
Mike Ananny plans to spend the year developing a new book project on the role probability plays in digital communication platforms, tentatively titled Probably Public. In everything from the machine learning algorithms and content moderation policies that drive the regulation of speech on platforms like Facebook, Google, and Twitter, much of online communication seems to involve logics of probability: the likelihood of speech surfacing, the chance of filtering misinformation or abusive content, tolerances for false positives and false negatives in recommendation algorithms, and even the prospect of platforms stably existing from one moment to the next. Though baked into the engineering and policy cultures driving our experiences with technology platforms and their public power, these thresholds, likelihoods, and statistical assumptions are largely hidden from view and accountability.
Ananny’s past work has focused at the intersection of journalism and new technology design, with his latest book Networked Press Freedom (MIT Press, 2018) re-examining the idea of journalistic autonomy in a networked age. He is a past fellow with the Columbia Journalism School’s Tow Center for Digital Journalism. He holds a PhD from Stanford (communication), an MA from the MIT Media Laboratory, and a BSc in human biology and computer science from the University of Toronto.
Ananny is an associate professor at the University of Southern California’s Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism, and a faculty affiliate with USC’s Science and Technology Cluster. In 2018-19, he is a Berggruen fellow at CASBS.
More on his work can be found at: http://mike.ananny.org
During her stay at CASBS, Eva Anduiza will be working on a monograph that analyzes the causes and consequences of citizens’ populist attitudes in European democracies. The book will describe the spread of these attitudes among European publics, their relation to different factors (such as economic vulnerability and perceptions of the economy, cognitive mobilization and value change, or feelings of anger and fear), and their consequences for political behavior (vote choice and participation).
Anduiza’s research interests are related to different aspects of citizens’ political engagement in advanced democracies including electoral turnout, political protest, digital media and political attitudes (such as political knowledge, partisanship, or attitudes towards corruption). She is also interested in experimental and survey methods. In her next project, she intends to analyze political change in Spain focusing on the recent large-scale feminist mobilization events and their implications for feminist identities and attitudes towards gender equality among citizens.
Anduiza is professor of political science at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona where she is also ICREA Academia research fellow and directs the research group on Democracy, Elections and Citizenship.
Learn more about Anduiza’s work at http://evaanduiza.uab.cat/
During her fellowship year, Elizabeth Armstrong will analyze data collected as part of a NSF-funded project on university responses to sexual misconduct. She will also collaborate with fellows Estelle Freedman and Jennifer Freyd on interdisciplinary approaches to sexual violence research.
Armstrong’s scholarship focuses on the reproduction of gender, class, and race inequalities. She examines these processes in the domain of sexuality and within the organizational context of the university. Her co-authored book, Paying for the Party: How College Maintains Inequality (Harvard University Press, 2013), followed a cohort of young women through their experiences at a large Midwestern state university. The book challenges the claim that college equalizes the life chances of college graduates. The authors demonstrated that the most well-resourced and seductive route through this university was a “party pathway” anchored in the Greek system and facilitated by the administration. This pathway benefited the affluent, while disadvantaging the majority.
Armstrong is a professor of sociology and organizational studies at the University of Michigan. Before coming to the University of Michigan in 2009, she held a faculty appointment in the department of sociology at Indiana University. She was a fellow at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard University and a recipient of a National Academy of Education/Spencer Postdoctoral Fellowship. She earned her MA and PhD degrees in sociology at the University of California, Berkeley, and a BA in sociology and computer science from the University of Michigan.
See more about her work here: https://sites.lsa.umich.edu/elizabetharmstrong/
During her fellowship year, Patricia Banks will work on two related projects. Her research considers the question “What are the meanings and motivations underlying black cultural patronage?” The first study draws on over 80 in-depth interviews with trustees and other supporters of black museums across the United States, as well as participant observation and archival research, to examine how patrons define the value of these cultural institutions. She examines how and why patrons’ definitions of worth vary based on race and ethnicity, profession, lifestyle, and generation. Her second study draws on ethnographic and archival data to investigate why corporations support black culture such as sponsoring black museums and dance companies.
With a focus on the African Diaspora, Banks studies the determinants, consequences, and meanings of cultural patronage and the processes underlying the emergence and growth of cultural markets. Her research involves various methods including in-depth interviews, visual analysis, participant observation, and archival research. In her book Represent: Art and Identity Among the Black Upper-Middle Class (Routledge, 2009) she examines how art collecting is a practice of black identity construction.
Banks is an associate professor in the department of sociology and anthropology at Mount Holyoke College. She earned her PhD and AM in sociology at Harvard University, and her BA in sociology from Spelman College.
For more information, see Banks’ website at http://www.patriciaannbanks.com/
When Niko Besnier did a stint of fieldwork in 2007 in Tonga, a Pacific Island society he knew well, he suddenly realized that rugby, the sport that had long been a national passion, had been transformed from a favorite pastime into a labor market, in a country where employment opportunities are few and far between. But in order for young men to make money playing the game they loved, they had to move transnationally to wealthy rugby-playing countries like Australia, Japan, and the United Kingdom. These sport migrations have transformed the economic landscape, gender relations, and what the future means.
How has the hope of a career in the professional sport industries in the Global North affected the life projects of young men and their families and communities in the Global South? In 2012–17, with funding from the European Research Council, Besnier directed the GLOBALSPORT project (www.global-sport.eu), which focused on these questions in the context of five sports on four continents. He will write up the results of this project during his fellowship year.
Besnier is a professor of cultural anthropology at the University of Amsterdam and research professor at La Trobe University Melbourne. He is editor-in-chief of American Ethnologist.
Bart Bonikowski’s research applies insights from cultural sociology to the study of politics, with a particular focus on nationalism and populism. During his time at CASBS, he will be working on a book about the characteristics, causes, and consequences of the continued rise of radical politics in the United States and Europe. The project combines his past work with new analyses of surveys, experiments, and large-scale textual corpora to examine empirical trends in the supply of and demand for populism, nationalism, and authoritarianism. The central argument is that persistent cleavages between competing understandings of the nation are at the root of radical-right support. These cultural dispositions are typically latent in the population, but in historical periods defined by rapid structural change, they can take on increased political salience, enabling political actors to channel ethno-racial majorities’ sense of collective status threat into out-group resentment. The politics fueled by such sentiments threaten the stability of political institutions and inter-group relations in contemporary democracies.
Bonikowski is an associate professor of sociology at Harvard University, Resident Faculty at the Minda de Gunzburg Center for European Studies, and a Faculty Affiliate of the Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, where he co-directs the Research Cluster on Global Populism and the Future of Democracy. His research has appeared in the American Sociological Review, the Annual Review of Sociology, Social Forces, the British Journal of Sociology, the Brown Journal of World Affairs, the International Journal of Comparative Sociology, and a number of other journals and edited volumes. He received his PhD in sociology from Princeton University.
For more information, visit his faculty webpage
During his year at CASBS, Jake Bowers will be working on the evidence-informed policy movement, which promises to enhance public policy and governance, speed science, and improve the lives of people. The specific projects that comprise this global effort use research to justify and guide policy action. Action requires trust, and therefore the research itself must be particularly transparent (reproducible, replicable, easy to understand, impersonal, open source). He will spend his fellowship year working to help translate principles and practices for transparent and credible research in the academy into the context of evidence-informed policy. This will involve some writing (how can we use predictive modeling and randomization-based inference to choose where to focus the next field experiment?) and some work on the CASBS Impact Evaluation Design Lab initiative. The Design Lab aims to improve causal evaluation of public policies by working directly with governments on specific problems, whether or not a randomized controlled trial is feasible. The problem-oriented approach of the Lab aims to improve the methods available for such policy-oriented causal inference in observational studies as well as the policies themselves. Thus the Lab will convene researchers who bring scientific insight and methodological expertise together with practitioners who bring deep contextual expertise and also new questions to challenge and thus speed innovation in social science and statistical methodology.
Bowers is an associate professor of political science and statistics at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He was a fellow with the White House Social and Behavioral Sciences Team, and a fellow with the Office of Evaluation Sciences http://oes.gsa.gov/
Visit the following website for more information about his work: http://jakebowers.org
During his fellowship year, Christopher Bryan will be focused on developing a theoretical framework for producing internalized behavior change. The idea at the core of this theoretical framework is that people are much more likely to be persuaded to change their behavior—eat healthier diets, conserve energy, vote in elections—if they are helped to see how those behaviors fit with their existing strongly held values. This is in contrast to the traditional approach, which tends to focus on why experts think people should change their behavior. Teens are taught ad nauseam, for example, that they should avoid junk food and eat lots of fruits and vegetables because it’s good for their health. But securing their long-term health just isn’t a priority for teenagers. Instead, Bryan and his collaborators have shown that teaching adolescents how the food industry spends millions trying to manipulate them into eating junk food allows them to think of healthy eating as a way to assert their independence from adult control. This is a core value in adolescence, and so that framing is successful in changing behavior.
Bryan studies persuasion and influence with an emphasis on how subtle differences in framing can shape people’s understanding of a behavior or decision and influence their behavior choices. Behavior choices play a critical role in society’s most daunting policy challenges—climate change, global hunger, and obesity, to name some—and have received increasing attention in academic and policy circles.
In other work, Bryan is applying this approach to motivate US citizens to vote in elections, to motivate poor Kenyan farmers to participate in a development program that increases their farming output, and to motivate parents to avoid distracted driving. His central goal for the fellowship year at CASBS is to articulate a general theory that encompasses this work and related work by other scholars and offers a blueprint for academics and policymakers interested in developing behavioral interventions to ameliorate pressing social and policy challenges.
Bryan is an assistant professor of behavioral science and FMC faculty scholar at the University of Chicago.
During his fellowship year, Tai-Li Chou will explore cross-linguistic transfer on meaning processing in children in Taiwan and those in the USA. Transferring conceptual knowledge between languages has been extensively explored within alphabetic systems in children. However, there is little known about cross-linguistic transfer on meaning processing between an alphabetic system (i.e. English) and a non-alphabetic system (i.e. Chinese) in children. This cross-linguistic transfer will be studied in second language learning in children. He will also explore the differences in meaning processing between typically developing children and children with autism. Autistic children have problems of using language to meet social expectations in different contexts, such as ignoring social cues, sticking on detailed information, or having difficulties in perspective taking. It is thus crucial to explore their use of language to exchange ideas during social interaction.
Chou uses functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural bases and development of language, and cognitive control with conflicting language processes in different populations (e.g. older vs. younger readers; normal vs. impaired readers; children with autism; children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; patients with schizophrenia). He received his BA and MS in psychology from National Taiwan University and a PhD in cognition and brain sciences from Cambridge University.
Chou is professor of psychology at the National Taiwan University. In 2018-19, he is the Stanford-Taiwan Social Science fellow at CASBS.
Francis Dennig will spend the year working on two projects exploring structural causes of inequality. The first considers the intergenerational transmission of capital (physical, human, social, etc.) and how the extent to which it is diluted in larger families affects the cross-sectional income distribution when income and fertility are inversely related. This line of research builds on his previous (co-authored) work on the topic. The second project is less advanced, and looks at the co-determinants of the college wage-premium and university fees with a particular focus on the dynamic objectives of universities and the market structure they operate in.
Dennig is assistant professor in social science at the National University of Singapore. He has a degree in mathematics from ETH Zurich, and a DPhil in economics from the University of Oxford. His research has focused on various dimensions of climate policy and cost benefit analysis. In 2018-19, he is a National University of Singapore fellow at CASBS.
For more, see his webpage: https://fdennig.github.io/
Elise Dermineur will spend her fellowship year completing a monograph on banking before banks, examining closely early financial markets and its actors. This interdisciplinary monograph is a social and economic account of private debt, credit, and indebtedness in preindustrial Europe, with special reference to the period 1500-1850. It tackles the credit relations and practices of ordinary Europeans.
After studying history at the Université de Strasbourg, France, Dermineur received a PhD in history in 2011 from Purdue University. Her research interests range widely, from the history of justice and economics to gender and social network analysis. Above all, she is deeply interested in the study of traditional communities in early modern Europe. She is currently leading the research project “Women and Credit Networks in Sweden and Finland, 1750-1850” at the Institute for Economic and Business History at the Stockholm School of Economics. In 2017, she published Gender and Politics in Eighteenth-Century Sweden (Routledge, 2017), a political biography of the Swedish queen Lovisa Ulrika (1720–1782). In 2018, she published a collection of essays titled Women and Credit in Preindustrial Europe (Brepols, 2018).
Dermineur is an associate professor of history at Umeå University, and a Pro Futura Scientia fellow at the Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study in Uppsala, Sweden.
To learn more about her research, visit Dermineur’s website www.elise-dermineur.eu
Andrew Elder will spend his year at CASBS exploring the rapidly increasing prevalence of frailty and, in particular, the common portrayal of the frail old as a social and economic burden. Insights from four workstreams will inform his analysis - patient narratives; current political approaches to health and social care of the frail in the UK and USA; historical and current attitudes of healthcare professionals, caregivers and broader society to the frail; and the literature on the human experience of frailty.
Elder has held a number of national and international roles in medical education, with particular expertise in the teaching and assessment of bedside clinical skills of doctors in training. A visiting professor at Stanford Medicine since 2015, he has worked with CASBS faculty fellow and founder of the multidisciplinary Presence initiative, Dr. Abraham Verghese, on aspects of the doctor-patient relationship, and his work at CASBS will strengthen and advance that collaboration.
Elder is a physician in medicine of older age in the UK National Health Service in Scotland, and an honorary professor in the Edinburgh Medical School. In 2018-19, he is the Presence-CASBS fellow at CASBS.
As a returning fellow (2009-10), Estelle Freedman’s current research project expands upon the legal approach in her book Redefining Rape: Sexual Violence in the Era of Suffrage and Segregation (Harvard University Press, 2015), by exploring digitized oral history collections as sources for understanding the personal history of assault, rape, and harassment. One goal is a methodological essay on interpreting sexual memories, sexual silences, and the changing language of sexual trauma across diverse groups of narrators. Freedman also plans to read more broadly in the interdisciplinary literature on assault and harassment, in conjunction with CASBS fellows Elizabeth Armstrong and Jennifer Freyd. They will be looking at the structural, institutional, and cultural forces that affect sexual violence, assessing preventive interventions, and generating future collaborative work.
Freedman’s past scholarship has focused on the histories of women, sexuality, feminism, and social movements. In addition to two books on the history of women’s prison reform in the U.S., she is the author of No Turning Back: The History of Feminism and the Future of Women (Ballantine Books, 2002) and the co-author (with John D'Emilio) of Intimate Matters: A History of Sexuality in America (University of Chicago Press, 2012). She earned her BA at Barnard College, and MA and PhD degrees in U.S. history at Columbia University.
Freedman holds the Edgar E. Robinson chair in U.S. history at Stanford, where she co-founded the Program in Feminist, Gender, and Sexuality Studies.
For more information, you can find her CV at http://ebf.stanford.edu/cv.html
A returning fellow (1989-90), Jennifer Freyd plans to explore the concepts of institutional betrayal and institutional courage, particularly as they apply to institutional response to sexual violence. Institutional betrayal is harm done by an institution to those dependent upon the institution, which can take the form of overt policies or behaviors such as discriminatory rules or genocide. The harm of institutional betrayal can also take the form of failing to do that what is reasonably expected of the institution (e.g. failing to provide relief to disaster victims or clean water to a town). It can be an institution failing to respond effectively to sexual violence that occurred in that institution’s context. Institutional betrayal is associated with both psychological and physical harm to those betrayed. Institutional courage is the antidote to institutional betrayal. It includes institutional accountability and transparency.
A related current interest is researching how to lessen the harm of DARVO (Deny, Attack, & Reverse Victim & Offender, a perpetrator strategy of discrediting victims), and understanding the role it plays in institutional betrayal trauma. Perhaps Freyd’s most ambitious goal for her fellowship year is to establish an ongoing research institute with a mission of addressing sexual violence with institutional courage. Related to all this, Freyd will collaborate with two other fellows (Elizabeth Armstrong and Estelle Freedman) on a joint project called “Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Sexual Violence: Individual, Institutional and Structural Forces.”
Freyd is a professor of psychology at the University of Oregon. She received her BA in anthropology from the University of Pennsylvania and her PhD in psychology from Stanford University.
To learn more about Freyd’s work see her website at https://www.jjfreyd.com/
During her fellowship year, Miriam Golden’s chief objective is to complete a book manuscript, Bad Government and the Paradox of Democracy. Using a combination of formal theory, statistical analysis of data, and historical case studies, the book examines the transition from the clientelistic and patronage politics characteristic of poor countries to the programmatic, party-centered politics of the wealthy. Golden's main contention is that politics in rich and poor countries attract different pools of candidates, in part because rent-seeking and corruption are punished in wealthy nations.
In addition to her focus on the book, Golden will also continue work on a collaborative field project taking place in Pakistan that partners with politicians to script and record questions to be sent out to voters on cell phones. With Saad Gulzar (Stanford University) and Luke Sonnet (UCLA), the project uses Interactive Voice Technology to provide politicians a channel to make programmatic commitments to groups of voters and allows voters to respond.
Golden is a professor of political science at the University of California, Los Angeles. She has written extensively on corruption, electoral fraud, and political criminality, with a theoretical focus on issues of political accountability and responsiveness. She has conducted field research in countries in Europe, Asia, Africa, and North America. She is also active in the interdisciplinary social scientific network, Evidence in Governance and Politics (EGAP), where she serves on the Steering Committee of the Natural Resources Governance Metaketa.
For more on Golden's research, go to: https://www.golden.polisci.ucla.edu/
Benjamin Mako Hill will study the cooperative production of public information goods online. His research will seek to model why some attempts at “peer production”—like Wikipedia and Linux—build large volunteer communities while the vast majority never grow large. In particular, he plans to test and extend theories of collective action and commons provision using data from large populations of online communities. He also hopes to model the way that causes of future growth shift as communities grow and mature.
Hill is an assistant professor in the department of communication at the University of Washington and a founding member of the Community Data Science Collective. He is also an adjunct assistant professor in UW’s Department of Human-Centered Design and Engineering as well as a Faculty Associate at the Berkman Klein Center for Internet and Society and an affiliate at the Institute for Quantitative Social Science — both at Harvard University. He has also been a leader, developer, and contributor to the free and open source software community for nearly two decades. Hill has degrees from Hampshire College, the MIT Media Lab, and the MIT Sloan School of Management.
For more, see Hill’s website: https://mako.cc/academic/
During her fellowship year, Ying-yi Hong plans to embark on a project to address how, when, and for whom exposure to multiple cultures will bring about beneficial versus detrimental outcomes. To this end, she seeks to integrate social psychology, behavioral economics, neuroscience, and genetics to study identity and intergroup dynamics. This integration hopefully will bring new understanding of how culture, identity, and human biology co-evolve, thereby shedding light on the development of humankind in the face of globalization and multicultural exposure.
This project is dear to Hong’s heart as she grew up in Hong Kong during the colonial era. Hong left Hong Kong to pursue graduate studies in the United States, and has worked in universities in Hong Kong, US, Singapore, and recently returned to Hong Kong to teach at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, her alma mater. She has worked on projects using experimental social psychology methods to examine identity and intergroup relations during major events, such as the handover of Hong Kong’s sovereignty to China in 1997, Hurricane Katrina in 2005, Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in 2011, and Hong Kong’s yellow umbrella movement in 2015. Recently, Hong has attempted to integrate state-of-the-art methods from GIScience, behavioral economics, neuroscience, and genetics to unpack human dynamics in the face of social and environmental changes.
Hong is currently a professor at the business school of Chinese University of Hong Kong. She received her PhD from Columbia University in the field of personality and social psychology.
Read more about Hong’s Culture Lab at http://www.yingyihong.org/
Toomas Hendrik Ilves is the former president of Estonia (2006-2016). His primary research focus and project at CASBS is on regulatory and technical solutions necessary to ensure the continued functioning of liberal democracy in the digital era.
Since leading Estonia on its road to becoming a leader in e-governance beginning in the early 1990s, Ilves has focused on democracy and digitization for some 25 years. He has served as Estonia’s first post-independence ambassador to Washington (1993-96), Foreign Minister (1996-2002), and Vice-president of the European Parliament’s Foreign Affairs Committee.
Ilves served as chairman of the EU Task Force on eHealth from 2011 to 2012, and was chairman of the European Cloud Partnership Steering Board. In 2013 he chaired the High-Level Panel on Global Internet Cooperation and Governance Mechanisms convened by ICANN. From 2014 to 2015, Ilves was the co-chair of the advisory panel of the World Bank’s World Development Report 2016 book, Digital Dividends, and also served as chair of World Economic Forum’s (WEF) Global Agenda Council on Cybersecurity.
In 2016, Ilves began co-chairing a WEF working group on Blockchain Technology. In 2017 Ilves became an advisory council member of German Marshall Fund’s Alliance for Securing Democracy. He is a member of the advisory boards of the Munich Security Conference, the NATO Center of Excellence for Cyber Security, the German Marshal Fund’s Alliance for Securing Democracy, and the Alliance for Democracy’s Transatlantic Commission on Election Integrity. Ilves also sits on the advisory board of the Oxford University Centre for Technology and Global Affairs.
Ilves has received numerous international awards, including: NDI Democracy Award by the National Democratic Institute (2013), Freedom Award by the Atlantic Council (2014), Aspen Prague Award by the Aspen Institute (2015), Knight of Freedom Award by the Casimir Pulaski Foundation (2016), John Jay Award by Columbia College (2017), Reinhard Mohn Prize by Bertelsmann Stiftung (2017), and the World Leader in Cybersecurity Award by Boston Global Forum (2017).
Ilves is currently a distinguished visiting fellow at the Hoover Institution at Stanford University. In 2018-19, he is a Berggruen fellow at CASBS.
Learn more about Ilves’ work in this recent interview: https://www.wsj.com/articles/report-from-the-cyberwar-front-lines-1514586268
Michelle Jackson will spend her fellowship year working on a book on long-term trends in educational inequality in the United States. In common with many other societies, the United States undertook significant educational reforms in the second half of the twentieth century, with most of these reforms aimed at equalizing educational opportunity. While at CASBS, Jackson will produce a book that provides both a comprehensive overview of long-term trends in educational inequality, and an assessment of the extent to which equalizing initiatives such as the G.I. Bill, the New Deal, desegregation, and the expansion of college were indeed associated with increased equality of educational opportunity. The book will demonstrate the importance of weighing the effects of equalizing policies against the disequalizing impact of the growth in income inequality and historically-contingent events.
Jackson is an assistant professor of sociology at Stanford University, and an associate member of Nuffield College, Oxford. She received her BA (philosophy, politics, and economics), MSc (sociology) and DPhil (sociology) from Oxford University.
You can visit her webpage here: https://www.mivich.com/
Jerry A. Jacobs’ major project at the Center this year will be a multi-faceted exploration of the future of work. The main theme of this study is a critical reexamination of whether automation will displace large number of workers. A case study will focus on elder care, specifically on whether the robots will take care of grandma. His current projects include an investigation of the representation of international topics and international authors in US-based social science journals, and an essay on the evolving interconnections between technology, work and family. His webpage includes links to many of his research projects as well as an essay on growing up at his parents’ hotel in the Catskill mountains.
Jacobs is professor of sociology at the University of Pennsylvania, where he has taught since earning his PhD in sociology at Harvard in 1983. He has served as editor of the American Sociological Review and as Founding President of the Work and Family Researchers Network, an interdisciplinary and international scholarly association that focuses on work and family issues. His most recent book, In Defense of Disciplines: Interdisciplinarity and Specialization in the Research University, was published in 2013 by the University of Chicago Press.
Sherman James will spend the year writing a book, John Henryism and the Health of the Black Working Class, detailing some of the physical health costs Black Americans pay by early/middle adulthood for their determined, upward mobility striving - against the odds. James is the originator of the John Henryism Hypothesis; the latter posits that “effortful, active coping” with difficult life stressors, like economic hardship and racial discrimination, contributes to the much earlier onset and higher mortality from cardiovascular disease suffered by African Americans. The hypothesis is rooted in African American folklore (specifically, the legend of John Henry, the steel-driving man), US labor history (e.g. the perennial displacement of low-skilled Black workers by machines), and public health and psychological research on the role of chronic stress in premature cardiovascular disease.
James is the Susan B. King Professor Emeritus of Public Policy at Duke University. He also holds adjunct professorships in epidemiology/public health at Tulane and Emory Universities. He is a member of the National Academy of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences and a past president of the Society for Epidemiologic Research. He is the 2016 Mahatma Gandhi Fellow of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.
Learn more at: http://sanford.duke.edu/people/faculty/james-sherman
One large and two smaller projects will fill Mark Kayser’s year at CASBS, each of which connects to a central question of how voters respond to the economy. The large project, together with Michael Peress, leverages an original dataset of over 2 million newspaper articles on the economy to investigate accuracy and bias in reporting on the economy; the role that the media plays in forming voters’ perceptions of the economy; how the media mediate economic effects on voting; and, lastly, the role of benchmarks in media framing of the economy.
The two smaller projects connect economic and policy voting. The first investigate how voter preferences migrate toward parties associated with short-run material issues during economic downturns, to the detriment of social democratic parties that have shifted toward the policy preferences of socio-cultural professionals. The second explores the effects of downward social mobility on right-wing populism.
Kayser is professor of applied methods and comparative politics at the Hertie School of Governance in Berlin. He was previously an assistant professor of political science at the University of Rochester and a Postdoctoral Prize Research Fellow at Nuffield College, Oxford. He holds a PhD from UCLA.
Read more about his work here: www.mark-kayser.com
Dan Kelly will be working on a book project centered on the biological and cultural evolution of norms, and the distinctive human psychological machinery that underlies normative cognition. One broad aim is to use the resources of the human sciences, especially the framework provided by gene-culture coevolutionary theory, to continue developing a picture of humans as deeply psychologically interdependent and cultural to the core. He brings it to bear on philosophical questions concerning the nature of morality, the function of social identities, human’s susceptibility to tribalism, the limits of individual autonomy and personal responsibility, and the challenges raised by macro-scale collective action problems associated with climate change and structural bias.
Kelly received his BA in philosophy and English literature from Illinois Wesleyan University, an MA from Tufts University, and his PhD from Rutgers University. His research focuses on issues at the intersection of philosophy of mind and cognitive science, moral theory, and evolution. His book Yuck! The Nature and Moral Significance of Disgust (MIT Press, 2011) brings together evolutionary and ethical perspectives on disgust, and he has published on moral judgment, norms, racial cognition, implicit bias, cross-cultural diversity, and David Foster Wallace and free will. He is a founding member of the Moral Psychology Research Group, and is a member of the Cultural Evolution Society, and the Building Sustainable Communities group at Purdue’s Center for the Environment. He likes a good argument.
At CASBS, Dominique Lestel will work on the intuition that some potentially disturbing aspects of robotics are still neglected but could have tremendous effects on contemporary societies. His starting point is the phenomenon of “pathetic machines”, machines that have no usefulness but to oblige humans to take care of them – like ‘Tamagotchi’. Could non-human “kindness” become a threat for humanity?
Lestel researches in the emerging field of “philosophical ethology”: human/other than human shared life, philosophy of animals and philosophical issues in Artificial Intelligences/Artificial Life. He has been head of the Eco-Ethology & Cognitive Ethology Research Group, and the Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris for the last few years. Lestel was a visiting professor at The School of the Institute of Art of Chicago (2004 and 2006), Tokyo University of Foreign Language (2007), and Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (2017-2018) as a Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Fellow. He was also a visiting scholar at UCSD, MIT, University of Montreal, Macquarie University (Sydney) and University of Tokyo. Lestel has written numerous books, with a few translated into English, including Journey to the End of Species, with T. Bardini, (DisVoir, 2010), Eat this Book: A Carnivore Manifesto (Columbia University Press, 2016), and The Friends of my Friends (Columbia University Press, 2007). In 2017, The Philosophical Ethology of Dominique Lestel (Routledge, 2017) was published by M. Chrulew, B. Buchanan & J. Bussolini.
Lestel is an associate professor in the department of philosophy of Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris where he teaches contemporary philosophy, and was a founding member of the department of cognitive studies (2001-2012). He is also a tenured researcher at the Archives Husserl of Paris. Lestel has his MA in philosophy (La Sorbonne, 1983) and PhD in philosophy (EHESS, 1986). In 2018-19, he is a Berggruen fellow at CASBS.
While at CASBS, Peter Loewen plans to work on his book, Are Politicians Good Enough for Democracy?, which explores the capacity of politicians to know what citizens want, make good policy decisions, and survive the demands of public life.
Loewen works on political elites - especially how they make decisions and undertake representation - and citizens - especially how they form opinions and choose to participate in social and political life. He is also interested in the role of technology in improving governance and representation. His work is published in journals of political science, economics, biology, and general science.
Loewen is a professor in the department of political science and the Munk School of Global Affairs and Public Policy at the University of Toronto. From 2016-2018 he was the Director of the School of Public Policy and Governance at Toronto. He has held visiting positions at Princeton University and the University of Melbourne.
The long-term goal of Elizabeth Lonsdorf’s research program is to use wild chimpanzees as a model for the evolutionary roots of human development. During the fellowship period, Lonsdorf will work on a series of papers that integrate newly available long-term datasets to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the multiple factors influencing developing chimpanzees. She will examine the potential interactions of maternal characteristics (e.g. health, dominance rank and personality), and offspring sex on offspring development and fitness. She will also examine sources of adversity (e.g. a low-ranking mother, illness) and how these mediate achievement of developmental milestones. This research will provide important insights into maternal effects on offspring development, the roles of adversity and resilience in offspring, and the factors predicting successful single motherhood in our closest living relative.
Lonsdorf began studying nonhuman primates as an undergraduate student at the Duke University Primate Center. For her dissertation research at the University of Minnesota, she spent several months each year studying wild chimpanzees at Tanzania’s Gombe Stream National Park to document the development of tool-use skills in infants and juveniles. After earning her PhD, Lonsdorf became the founding Director of the Lester E. Fisher Center for Study and Conservation of Apes at Lincoln Park Zoo. She returns annually to Gombe to maintain a research program focused on chimpanzee health and infant development in collaboration with the Jane Goodall Institute and other collaborators. In addition, she is the director of Franklin and Marshall’s primate research laboratory, conducting behavioral research on the two capuchin monkey families that call F&M home.
Lonsdorf is an associate professor of psychology and a member of the Biological Foundations of Behavior Program at Franklin & Marshall College in Lancaster, Pennsylvania.
At CASBS, Adrienne Mayor will explore the deep roots of the impulse to fabricate artificial life, beings “made, not born.” Gathering evidence that concepts of robots, animated statues, human enhancements, and Artificial Intelligence arose long before technological innovations made them possible, Mayor looks at Greek myths (and tales from Egypt, India, and China) that envisioned ways to imitate, augment, and surpass nature by bio-techne, “life through craft.” She will also investigate the relationship between classical myths and real historical automata that began to proliferate in Hellenistic era, to understand how imagination is a link between myths about technology and science.
Meanwhile, Mayor will continue to research interdisciplinary topics in geomythology, to discover natural knowledge and scientific realities embedded in mythological traditions about nature.
A historian of ancient science and research scholar in classics and history and philosophy of science at Stanford since 2006, Mayor’s books include The First Fossil Hunters: Paleontology in Greek and Roman Times (Princeton, 2000); Greek Fire, Poison Arrows, and Scorpion Bombs: Biological and Chemical Warfare in the Ancient World (Overlook, 2003); The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women (Princeton, 2014); and a biography of Mithradates, The Poison King (Princeton, 2010), a National Book Award finalist. In 2018-19, she is a Berggruen fellow at CASBS.
For further information, see https://web.stanford.edu/dept/HPS/Mayor.html
During her year at CASBS, Ruth Milkman hopes to complete a short book (under contract with Polity) arguing that – contrary to the xenophobic narrative that helped propel Donald Trump’s election to the presidency – the influx of immigrants into low-wage occupations and industries typically occurs after employers take active steps to degrade jobs traditionally performed by non-college-educated U.S.-born workers. Such restructuring relies on a mix of de-unionization, deregulation and/or subcontracting, leading U.S.-born workers to abandon what have become undesirable jobs and seek alternative employment in other sectors. At that point employers recruit immigrants to fill the vacancies.
The key takeaway is that white workers’ alienation and anger, while entirely justified, is profoundly misdirected: it should focus on employer business strategies, not immigrants.
This project is part of a long-term research agenda on low-wage work and labor organizing in the U.S. that Milkman has been engaged in for decades now.
Milkman is a distinguished professor of sociology at The Graduate Center, CUNY.
For more, visit: www.ruthmilkman.info
A returning fellow (2004-05), Reviel Netz’ project is A History of Greek Mathematics. A century in the making, so to speak: the previous History of Greek Mathematics is from 1921! Indeed, we need a new study, because the history of mathematics has been told as that of an autonomous, context-free domain. And yet mathematics – like everything else people do – is social. The rise of Greek mathematics was a unique event, paving the way to modern science. It came through a specific social combination: a culture of debate, the invention of the “author”, the formation of networks of scholarships.
Netz has published twelve books, a rather eclectic set (one monograph, for instance, is in modern ecological history, another collection of essays is a study of Hebrew and Russian poetry). Three monographs are on Greek mathematics, and he had the great fortune to edit the Archimedes Palimpsest. His most recent monograph, forthcoming from CUP – “Scale, Space, Canon: Parameters of Ancient Literary Practice” - is a study of Greek literary culture takes as a whole, considered “statistically”: how many authors? Where? When? What are the consequences of such quantities?
Netz is the Patrick Suppes Professor of Greek Mathematics and Astronomy at Stanford University.
Stephen Sawyer will be spending his fellowship year working on the second volume of his history of democracy and the state in the nineteenth century. The first volume, entitled Demos Assembled: Democracy and the International Origins of the Modern State, 1840-1880 (University of Chicago Press, 2018) argued that a sustained interest in the democratic following the 1848 revolutions brought forward a series of problems in which the power of the political community over itself received its first lasting institutional responses. At CASBS, Sawyer will continue his project by revisiting the previous period in a manuscript with the working title: The Democratic Revolution, 1820-1850. This project explores the vibrant moment of public engagement that stretched from the 1820s to the military reaction that swept across Europe in the early 1850s. In it, he explores how these revolutions may be better understood as one dilated revolutionary moment in which a modern definition of democracy began to take form.
Sawyer is a professor of history at the American University of Paris. His work dialogues with the fields of legal history, political theory, political sociology and political science. He earned his PhD in history from the University of Chicago.
Maya Tudor will spend her fellowship year on two related book projects. The first book asks under what conditions nationalism can succor or stymie democracy through a comparative historical analysis of similar countries with different founding nationalisms across Asia. The second book (with Prerna Singh, Brown University) is a critical analysis of social science scholarship on nationalism, highlighting emerging research agendas.
Tudor is a comparative political scientist whose research focuses on democracy, nationalist movements, and party competition. Her book, Promise of Power: The Origins of Democracy in India and Autocracy in Pakistan (Cambridge University Press, 2013) was based on her doctoral thesis, which won the 2010 Gabriel Almond Prize for the best dissertation in comparative politics.
Tudor is an associate professor of politics and public policy at the Blavatnik School of Government, University of Oxford. She holds a PhD in politics and public policy and an MPA in development studies from Princeton University and a BA in economics from Stanford University.
To learn more about her recent research, read this article in the Washington Post.
Vanessa Tyson will use her fellowship year to research the politics and policies surrounding sexual violence against women and children in the United States. More specifically, she will explore political discourse surrounding sexual assault, corresponding policies, and the unique identities of sexual assault survivors.
Her first book, Twists of Fate: Multiracial Coalitions and Minority Representation in the US House of Representatives (Oxford University Press, 2016), explored structural inequality in the United States, and how members of Congress have formed multiracial coalitions as a strategy to provide for their diverse constituencies. As a scholar of policy formulation, race, gender, and social justice, Tyson has an extensive background in both US and California politics. Having worked on political campaigns since her teenage years, she carefully considers how political dynamics affect policy formulation and consequent outcomes.
Tyson spent years volunteering as an advocate for sexual violence awareness and prevention, serving as one of the founding members of the Boston Area Rape Crisis Center Survivor Speakers’ Bureau, and starting a self-esteem/self-awareness program for female juvenile offenders through the Department of Youth Services in the State of Massachusetts.
Tyson currently serves as associate professor in the department of politics at Scripps College. She has a BA from Princeton University in politics, coupled with a certificate in African American studies, and an MA and PhD from the University of Chicago in political science.
Jacob Ward will be spending his time at CASBS writing a book, due for publication by Hachette in 2020, about how artificial intelligence will amplify, change, and replace human instincts.
Ward is a science and technology correspondent for CNN, Al Jazeera, and PBS. The former editor-in-chief of Popular Science magazine, Ward writes for The New Yorker, Wired, and Men’s Health. His ten-episode Audible podcast series, Complicated, discusses humanity’s most difficult problems, and he’s the host of an upcoming four-hour documentary series, “Hacking Your Mind,” that introduces a television audience to the fundamental scientific discoveries in human decision making and irrationality. Ward is developing several original television series about the unintended consequences of big ideas, and as a journalist covers the various ways that technologies push human beings past their physical, mental, and ethical limits. In 2018-19, he is a Berggruen fellow at CASBS.
The multiracial movement is one of many indicators that the old American racial order is giving way to a new one. What kind of new racial order will Americans create? How will they create it? American history demonstrates that social movements have profoundly shaped past racial orders. The same is true today. Williams will spend the year at CASBS writing a book about social movement coalitions in the Trump Era. Her book will explore the possibility that rising white backlash is pushing the immigrant rights and civil rights movements together on the most divisive new racial order policy issue of our time: immigration.
Williams studies American social movements. Her book, Mark One or More: Civil Rights in Multiracial America (University of Michigan, 2006), shows that even small and modest social movements can have a profound impact on public policy through their unintended consequences. The sequel to her book, “The Recursive Outcomes of the Multiracial Movement & The End of American Racial Categories” (Studies in American Political Development, April 2017), explains how the small group of “multiracial” activists under examination in her 2006 study set in motion a process that could plausibly lead to the end of official racial statistics altogether.
Williams is an associate professor of political science at Portland State University. She was a faculty member at Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government from 2000-2010. She served on the U.S. Census Bureau’s African American Advisory Committee from 2008-2011. She holds a PhD from Cornell University and a BA from the University of California, Berkeley.
During her fellowship year, Cara Wong will focus on the study of public opinion and the politics of race, ethnicity, and migration. She is writing a book about how people’s perceptions of their community affect their political judgments, using survey and hand-drawn map data gathered from respondents in Canada, the UK, and the US. She is also studying attitudes about the value of citizenship, focusing on the relationship between citizenship and service and the case of noncitizen soldiers in the U.S. military. Finally, she is beginning a project on how interactions with government bureaucracies and especially immigration forms can have downstream effects on national identities and attachments of immigrants.
She is the author of Boundaries of Obligation in American Politics: Geographic, National, and Racial Communities (Cambridge University Press, 2010), and her work has appeared in various academic journals, including Journal of Politics, British Journal of Political Science, and Public Opinion Quarterly. After receiving her AB in government at Harvard University, she completed her MA and PhD in political science at the University of California, Berkeley. She has been a fellow at the Russell Sage Foundation, Fulbright Scholar in Chile at the Pontificia Universidad Católica, and Hallsworth Visiting Professor at the University of Manchester, and is currently the president of the political psychology section of the American Political Science Association.
Wong is an associate professor of political science at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, with an appointment in the department of Asian American studies.
During her fellowship year, Linda Woodhead will be conducting research on the ‘No Religion Generation’. She is part of a larger ‘iGen Project’, based at CASBS that is carrying out research with young millennials in the US and UK. Her particular focus is on what it means for young people to be raised in a context in which ‘no religion’ rather than Christianity is the cultural norm.
Woodhead is a sociologist of religion, beliefs and values. Much of her work has looked at the decline of Christian influence (especially in liberal democracies) and the rise of alternative beliefs, values and rituals – both spiritual and non-religious. Her latest book is That Was the Church That Was: How the Church of England lost the English People (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2016, with Andrew Brown).
Woodhead is professor of sociology of religion at Lancaster University, UK. She studied at Cambridge University.
Kirsten Wysen will learn and write about the history, theory and potential of equitable community-led work during her fellowship year. She is interested in how different fields understand why, when and how raising community leadership and putting government in a collaborative position (government of the people) can improve health and wellbeing.
She is a public health and public policy practitioner with experience at the federal, state and local levels. She has worked at the Medicare Payment Assessment Commission, Washington State Health Care Authority and Health Services Commission, and the National Academy for State Health Policy. She received a BA in human biology from Brown University and an MA in health services administration from the University of Michigan’s School of Public Health.
Wysen currently works at Public Health – Seattle & King County on “Communities of Opportunity,” a multi-sector partnership that features prominent roles for community leaders – typically people of color from historically under-invested parts of the Seattle region. By building relationships and shifting power to people most affected by today’s inequities, the governmental and philanthropic entities that launched Communities of Opportunity have benefited greatly from the inherent power of community partners.
More information about Communities of Opportunity is at www.kingcounty.gov/coo
During his fellowship year, Songfa Zhong will work on projects related to decision making under risk and uncertainty. In one project, he will examine preference for randomization in various settings including ambiguity, fair allocation and strategic interactions. In another project, he will investigate attitudes towards uncertainties arising from different sources such as urns and balls in the sense of Ellsberg paradox, natural events, and strategic interactions, as well as the links among these preferences. He is also highly interested in exploring these topics in the applied domains such as labor supply, financial investment, and healthcare.
Zhong uses a wide range of methodologies from behavioral economics and experimental economics to genetics and neuroscience to conduct research on decision making, encompassing theory, experiment, and application. Arising from the interdisciplinary nature of his research, Zhong’s works have appeared in economics-oriented journals such as American Economic Review, Econometrica, International Economic Review, Review of Economic and Statistics, and Management Science, as well as more biology-oriented ones including Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Neuron, Proceedings of the Royal Society B, and Neuroimage. He is also a Coordinating Editor of Theory and Decision. Zhong received his BA in accounting from Peking University in 2003 and his PhD in economics from the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology in 2009.
He is currently an associate professor in economics at the National University of Singapore. In 2018-19, he is a National University of Singapore fellow at CASBS.
More on his work can be found at: https://zhongsongfa.weebly.com/